Psychology From an Empirical Standpoint · Franz Brentano. Routledge () Brentano and Wundt: Empirical and Experimental Bradford. Franz Brentano (). Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint. I. The Concept and Purpose of Psychology. Source: Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint. This standpoint is clearly mirrored in his empirical approach to psychology. It is noteworthy.

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Psychology from An Empirical Standpoint

The words “phenomenon” or “appearance” are often used in opposition to “things which really and truly exist. The differences which still exist between them are that the old definition contains metaphysical presuppositions from which the modern one is free; that the psycholoy is brenyano by opposing schools of thought, while the former already bears the distinctive mark of one particular school; and the one, therefore, frees us from general preliminary researches which the other would oblige us to undertake.

When Italy entered war against Psycnology and Austria during World War I, Brentano, who felt fdom a citizen of all three countries, moved from Florence to neutral Switzerland. Roderick Chisholm, for example, made a continuous effort to show Brentano’s significance to contemporary philosophy by adopting his results in his own contributions to the philosophy of mind, but also in presentations of various aspects of Brentano’s thought cf. This page was last edited on 23 Octoberat But this is as far as we can go.

Yet, whatever appearance of necessity there is for restricting the range of inquiry in this connection, it may still be no more than an appearance. They are, however, numerous and important enough for there to be a special field of study devoted to them.

Already standpolnt high school he became acquainted with Scholasticism; at university he studied Aristotle with Trendelenburg in Berlin, and read Comte as well as the British Empiricists mainly John Stuart Millall of whom had a great influence on his work. Standpoibt addition, psychology has the task of becoming the scientific basis for a theory of education, both of the individual and of society.

As they appear to be, so they are in reality, a fast which is attested to by the evidence with which they are perceived. The work remained incomplete. Instead, he conceives both substances and accidents as real things that are related to one another by a particular mereological relation: Essays on Central European PhilosophyBrntano Also Dan Zahavi has insisted that Standppint does distinguish two levels of perception, which sheds doubts on the one-level interpretation: When Brentano came back to Vienna a few months later, the Austrian authorities did not reassign him his position.


And so psychology appears to be the fundamental condition of human progress in precisely those things which, above all, constitute human dignity. Meinong’s theory of objects can best be understood as a reaction to the ontological difficulties in Brentano’s account.

These very simple observations can easily convince anyone of the great theoretical significance of psychological knowledge. The extent to which they, too, are merely blind empiricists is demonstrated every time that an extraordinary event suddenly changes the political situation and even more clearly every time one of them finds himself in a foreign country where conditions are different.

They are not, however, an adequate representation of this reality, and they give us knowledge of it only in a very incomplete sense. I never can catch myself at any time without a perception, and never can observe anything but the perception, When my perceptions are removed for any time, as by sound sleep; so long am I insensible of myself, and may truly be said not to exist. He counted Sigmund Freud amongst his students and Freud expressed great admiration for his teacher in several letters.

Franz Brentano (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Every mental phenomenon includes something na object within itself It is a different matter if we compare the goals which each of the two sciences pursue. It is rather interwoven with the latter: This was fully recognised by John Standppint Mill.

Anyone who has engaged m scientific psychological research recognises this and even the layman can easily and quickly find confirmation for it in his own inner experience.

Duncker und Humblot, Psychologie vom empirischen Standpunkte ; second edition is an book by the Austrian philosopher Franz Brentanoin which the author argues that the goal of psychology should be to establish exact laws.

Similarly, in their opinion, natural science is to be defined as the science of physical phenomena, rather than as the science of bodies. Brenyano the phenomena of consciousness are related to one another to an extraordinary degree.

We have seen how the field of psychology became circumscribed. Similarly, there would also be certain general laws which determine the actual appearance of brenano an idea. Subsequently, however, these phenomena began to seem quite mysterious themselves and began to arouse astonishment and curiosity.

Franz Brentano

In modern terminology the word “soul” refers to the substantial bearer of presentations and other activities which are based upon presentations and which, like presentations, are only perceivable through inner perception.


Not only may physical states be aroused by physical states and mental states by mental, but it is also the case that physical states have mental consequences and mental states have physical consequences.

Just as physical phenomena are under the influence of psychologgy laws, and chemical phenomena are under the influence of physical laws, and those of physiology under the influence of all these laws, so psychological phenomena are influenced by the laws governing the forces which shape and renew the bodily psycholog involved.

Actions, Products, and Things: In some cases the intentional object does not exist, but even in these cases there is an object external to the mental act towards which we are directed. In the same way, the animal kingdom, insofar as it, like plants and inorganic things is an object of external perception, was excluded from their field of research.

Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint – Wikipedia

Logic, according to Brentano, is the practical discipline that is concerned with judgments; i. Sometimes the processes are analogous to those in mechanics and sometimes to those in chemical reactions.

The passage clearly suggests, however, that the intentional object towards which we are directed is part of the psychological act. For, he says, sounding exactly like a modern psychologist, such an investigation is not the province of one who studies the soul, but of one who studies the body. Zur Kenntnis seines Lebens und seiner Werke. Thus delimited, psychology and the natural sciences appear to divide the entire field of the empirical sciences between them, and to be distinguished from one another by a clearly defined boundary.

In so doing, they in no way restrict the domain of the natural sciences. For the facts which the physiologist investigates and those which the psychologist investigates are most intimately correlated, despite their great differences in character. In his opinion, some of these laws ab general, others more special. But this remains to be investigated, and the investigation of this question, which is the job of the psychologist because it deals with laws of comparative judgement, could yield a result quite different from what was expected.

Consciousness, Brentano argues, always forms a unity. In contrast to that which vrentano and truly exists, they are mere phenomena.