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The chapters of this volume were almost all spoken addresses. The author has not now changed their character as such, for it seemed to him that to convert them into formal essays would be to rob them of any little attraction they may possess. It was published, in part, in English in the London Jewish Chronicleand the author is indebted to the conductors of that periodical for permission to include this, and other material, in the present collection.

Some others of the chapters have been printed before, but a considerable proportion of the volume is quite new, and even those addresses that are reprinted are now given in a fuller and much revised text. As several of the papers were intended for popular audiences, the author is persuaded that it would ill accord with his original design to overload the book with notes and references.

These have been supplied only where apojalipsa necessary, and a few additional notes are appended at the end of the volume. The author apokxlipsa that the book can have little permanent value. But as these addresses seemed to give pleasure to those who heard them, he thought it possible that they might provide passing entertainment also to those who are good enough to read them.

Joseph Zabara has only in recent times received the consideration justly due to him.

Ä Ä™Ä‡Å›Å„ÅºÅ¼Ã³Å‚ zmienia aaa aaron aar aaltonen aabye – Reptar

It is a golden link between folk-literature and imaginative poetry. The style is original, and the framework of the story is an altogether fresh adaptation of a famous legend. The anecdotes and epigrams introduced incidentally also partake of this twofold quality.

The author has made them his own, yet they are mostly adapted rather than invented. Hence, the poem is as valuable to the folklorist as to the literary critic. The folk-lore interest of the book is, indeed, greater than was known formerly, for it is now recognized as a variant of the Solomon-Marcolf legend. On this more will be said below. He was one of the first to write extended narratives in Hebrew rhymed prose with interspersed snatches of verse, the form invented by Arabian poets, and much esteemed as the medium for story-telling and for writing social satire.

The reader of Zabara feels that other poets will develop his style and surpass him; the reader of Charizi knows of a surety that in him the style has reached its climax. The poet writes with so much indignant warmth of the dwellers in certain cities, of their manner of life, their morals, and their culture, that one can only infer that he is relating his personal experiences.

Zabara, like the hero of his romance, travelled much during the latter portion of the twelfth century, as is known from the researches of Geiger. He was born in Barcelona, and returned there to die. In the interval, we find him an apt pupil of Joseph Kimchi, in Narbonne. Joseph Kimchi, the founder of the famous Kimchi family, carried the culture of Spain to Provence; and Joseph Zabara may have acquired from Kimchi his mastery over Hebrew, which he writes with purity and simplicity.

Joseph Kimchi, who flourished in Provence from toquotes Joseph Zabara twice, with approval, in explaining verses in Proverbs. It would thus seem that Zabara, even in his student days, was devoted pangg the proverb-lore on which he draws so lavishly in his maturer work. Steinschneider, to whom belongs the credit of rediscovering Zabara in modern times, infers that the poet was a physician.


There is more than probability in the case; there is certainty. The romance is built by a doctor; there is more talk of medicine in it than of any other topic of discussion. Here, for instance, is an early form of a witticism that has been attributed to many recent humorists.

The convalescent was walking in the street when the doctor met him. Yet, do not feel alarmed. You will not suffer. I told them on my oath that you are no doctor. And if further proof be needed that Zabara was a man of science, the evidence is forthcoming; for Zabara appeals several times to experiment in proof of his assertions. And to make assurance doubly sure, the author informs his readers in so many words of his extensive medical practice in his native place. There is a satirical introduction against the doctors that slay a man before his time.

The author, with mock timidity, explains that he withholds his name, lest the medical profession turn its attention to him with fatal results. He left Barcelona in search of learning and comfort. He found the former, but the latter eluded him. On the one hand, he says many pretty things about women. The moral of the first section of the romance is: Put your trust in women; and the moral of the second section of the poem is: A good woman is the best part of man.

His philogynist tags hardly compensate for his misogynist satires. He runs with the hare, but hunts energetically with the hounds. These additions are sharply misogynist; the poet does not even attempt to blunt their point. She has demoniac traits; her touch is fatal. A condemned criminal is offered his life if he will wed a wicked woman.

He met some devils. The devils turned and ran away with him. One rather longer story may be summarized thus: Satan, disguised in human shape, met a fugitive husband, who had left his wicked wife. Satan told him that he was in similar case, and proposed a compact. Satan would enter into the bodies of men, and the other, pretending to be a skilful physician, would exorcise Satan. They would share the profits. Satan begins on the king, and the queen engages the confederate to cure the king within three days, for a large fee, but in case of failure the doctor is to die.

Satan refuses to come out: The doctor obtains a respite, and collects a large body of musicians, who make a tremendous din. Out sprang Satan and fled to the end of the earth. In general, Oriental satire directed against women must not be taken too seriously. Woman was the standing butt for men to hurl their darts at, and one cannot help feeling that a good deal of the fun got its point from the knowledge that the charges were exaggerated or untrue. You find the Jewish satirists exhausting all their stores of drollery on the subject of rollicking drunkenness.

They roar till their sides creak over the humor of the wine-bibber. They laugh at him and with him.

They turn again and again to the subject, which shares the empire with women in the Jewish poets. Yet we know well enough that the writers of these Hebrew Anacreontic lyrics were sober men, who rarely indulged in overmuch strong drink. Woman plays the part with the former that the mother-in-law played a generation ago with the latter. In Zabara, again, there is a good deal of mere rudeness, which pagn author seems to mistake for cutting repartee.

This, I take it, is another characteristic of the so-called new humor. The stories themselves are probably Indian in origin; hence they are marked by the tone hostile to woman so characteristic of Indian folk-lore. On the other hand, if Zabara himself was a friendly critic of woman, his own moralizings in her favor are sg. This theory is not entirely upset by the presence even of the additional stories, for these, too, are translations, and Zabara cannot be held responsible for their contents.


The selection of good anecdotes was restricted in his day within very narrow limits. He knew something of astronomy, philosophy, the science of physiognomy, music, mathematics, and physics, and a good deal of medicine.

He was familiar with Arabian collections of proverbs and tales, for he informs his readers several times that he is drawing on Arabic sources.

Ä Ä™Ä‡Å›Å„ÅºÅ¼Ã³Å‚ zmienia aaa aaron aar aaltonen aabye – Reptar – PDF Free Download

His acquaintance with the language of the Bible was thorough; but he makes one or two blunders in quoting the substance of Scriptural passages. Though he disclaimed the title of a Talmudic scholar, he was not ignorant of the Pant literature. He was sufficiently at home in this literature to pun therein. The story, as Zabara tells it, differs considerably from the Apocryphal version of it. The incidents are misplaced, the story of the betrothal is disconnected from that of the wpokalipsa of the money by Tobit, and the detail of the gallows occurs in no other known text of the story.

One of the tales told by Zabara seems to imply a phenomenon of the existence of which there is no other evidence. There seems to have been in Spain a small class of Jews that were secret converts to Christianity. They passed openly for Jews, but were in truth Christians. The motive for the concealment is unexplained, and the whole passage may be merely satirical. In the following year the late Senior Sachs wrote an introduction to it and to two other publications, which were afterwards issued together under the title Yen Lebanon Paris, The editor was aware of the existence of another text, but, strange to tell, he did not perceive the need of examining it.

Had he done this, his edition would apokzlipsa been greatly improved. Apikalipsa or two other copies of this apokaljpsa are extant elsewhere.


The editor was Isaac Akrish, as we gather from a marginal note to the version of Tobit given by Joseph Zabara. This Isaac Akrish was a travelling bookseller, who printed interesting little books, and hawked them about. The type is that of the Jaabez Press, established in Constantinople and Salonica in This Constantinople edition is not only longer than the Paris edition, it is, on the whole, more accurate.

The verbal apokallipsa between the two editions are extremely numerous, but the greater accuracy of the Constantinople edition shows itself in many ways. The rhymes are much better preserved, though the Paris edition is occasionally superior in this respect.

But many passages that are quite unintelligible in the Paris edition are clear enough in the Constantinople edition. The gigantic visitor of Joseph, the narrator, the latter undoubtedly the author himself, is a strange being. Like the guide of Gil Bias on his adventures, he is called a demon, and he glares and emits smoke and fire. But he proves amenable to argument, and quotes the story of the washerwoman, to show how it was that he became a reformed character. This devil quotes the Rabbis, and is easily convinced that it is unwise for him to wed an ignorant bride.